• Research kachinas. The Hopi kachina cult may have been evolving as early as this story but may not have been fully developed until the 1300s. Kachinas were deities who people invoked for help. Kachina dolls, carved from cottonwood root, were made to teach children about the roles of the many kachinas.
  • The Kokopelli kachina is thought to have represented fertility. His hunched back may represent a full pack of seeds. He often carried a cane or a flute. Rock art depicts him throughout the Southwest, but the name Kokopelli traditionally refers only to the Hopi representation. The motif and the name Kokopelli have been commercialized throughout the West.
  • Mudhead kachinas brought humor to the many long and serious Pueblo ceremonies. Their heads looked like great globs of mud, and they performed entertaining, clownish antics.


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    1988, Arizona Parks and Monuments, Renaissance House Publishers, Frederick, CO.
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    1987, The Fourth World of the Hopis, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.
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    1982Pueblo Indians of the Southwest, Holt, Rinehart, Winston, New York, NY.
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    1986, Myths and Legends of the Indians of the Southwest: Hopi, Acoma, Tewa, Zuni, Bellerophon Books, Santa Barbara, CA.
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    1996, The Magic Hummingbird, A Hopi Folktale, Kiva Publishing, Santa Fe, NM.
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    1984, Spiderwoman Stories: Legends of the Hopi Indians, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
  • Seaman, P. David (Ed.)
    1995, Born a Chief: The Nineteenth Century Hopi Boyhood of Edmund Nequatewa, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
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    1986, The Hopi Way: Tales From a Vanishing Culture, Northland Press, Flagstaff, AZ.
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    1994, Coyote and the Winnowing Birds, Tsaayantotaqam Tsiroot, A Traditional Hopi Tale, Clear Light Publishing, Santa Fe, NM.
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    1994, Kokopelli: Fluteplayer Images in Rock ArtAncient City Press, Santa Fe, NM.
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    1991, Life in the Pueblos, 
    Ancient City Press, Santa Fe, NM.