• Look at the Trade Route Map. What do you notice about the trails?
       Most of them follow rivers (or connect springs/water sources).
  • Why did the trails usually follow rivers?
  • Discuss how some  roads today probably follow ancient Indian trails that may have been traveled for thousands of years. Why?

  • Because both follow the only passable route through difficult terrain.
  • Which star is the Traveler's Star? Why was it so important to travelers?
    The North Star never moves from its position which is nearly due north. This was invaluable to travelers on land and sea for thousands of years before compasses were used.
  • What does the rather Hollywood phrase, "It's been three (or four, or many) moons since I did s0-and-so" mean?
    A period of time from one full (or new) moon to the next one.
  • What words do we commonly use that relate to the moon?
    Month (from moon), lunatic (from lunar), etc.


  • Arizona Traveler Guidebooks
    1988, Arizona Birds, Renaissance House Publishers, Frederick, CO. 
    1988, Arizona Cactus, Renaissance House Publishers, Frederick, CO.
  • Astronomy Magazine
  • Caduto, Michael and Joseph Bruchac
    1994, Keepers of the Night, Native American Stories and Nocturnal Activities for Children, Fulcrum, Inc., Golden, CO.
  • Dutton, Bertha and Caroline Olin
    1986, Myths and Legends of the Indians of the Southwest: Hopi, Acoma, Tewa, Zuni, Bellerophon Books, Santa Barbara, CA.
  • Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz
    1984, American Myths and Legends, Palltheon Books, New York, NY.
  • Gustafson, J.
    1992, Stars, Clusters, and Galaxies, Julian Messner, New York.
  • Haury, Emil W.
    1989, The Mogollon Culture of SW New Mexico, Medallion Papers 20, Gila Pueblo, Globe, AZ.
  • Houk, Rose
    1992, Mogollon, Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, Tucson, AZ.
  • Martin, Paul S.
    1979, Prehistory: Mogollon, In Handbook of North American Indians 9, Southwest,  Alfonso Ortiz, ed., pp. 61-74, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Menzel, D.H.
    1983, A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
  • Monroe, Jean Guard and Ray A. Williamson
    1987, Dance in the Sky, Native American Star Myths, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.
  • Raymo, C.
    1982, 365 Starry Nights: An Introduction to Astronomy for Every Night of the Year, Simon & Schuster Inc., New York, NY.
  • Science and Children Magazine
    (good source for constellations)
  • Silver, Donald M.
    1998, One Small Square, The Night Sky, Learning Triangle Press, New York.
  • Skycharts in newspapers (weekly)
  • Taylor, Harriet Peck
    1993, Coyote Places the Stars, Bradbury Press, New York, NY.
  • Williamson, Ray
    1984, Living the Sky: The Cosmos of the American Indian, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.